Yes, it can. When an employee’s claim goes through the state system or the Workers’ Compensation Appeals Board (WCAB), the case becomes public record. In California, employers can access workers’ compensation records only after making an offer of employment, and can only use this information if an injury might interfere with your ability to perform required duties. Employers can't use medical information or the fact that you've filed a workers’ compensation claim to discriminate against you.
Although the WCAB can’t reveal medical information and the employer can’t rescind an offer due to a workers’ compensation claim, employers sometimes discover that people haven’t listed some previous employers where they had filed workers’ compensation claims. In such situations, the employer could terminate the new hire because it appears that they’ve falsified an application.